David Kaplan: Today we are going to be talking about changes around sexual or romantic relationships specifically as they relate to Standard A.5. Marsman and Prof A. Aleman (head of the Cognitive Neuroscience Center), who will review requests and assure accessibility of the data. Innovations in Clinical and Educational Interventions. Roles 2.2% had depression symptoms corresponding to mild depression. To participate in the heartbreak group, subjects had to have a relationship breakup within the preceding six months and a relationship duration of at least six months. To characterize the heartbreak group, a PCA-varimax was performed on the questionnaire battery. Parallel analysis revealed two components with corresponding eigenvalues greater than the concomitant eigenvalue calculated for a random dataset, explaining respectively 45.8% and 13.8% of the variance. Vol.4 No.11,November 27, 2013, DOI: The PRQC was used to assess self-reported former relationship quality[18]. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality in young adulthood, via friendship quality development in adolescence. Communication is a key piece of a healthy relationship. This paves the way to investigate the involvement of stress in the transition from healthy-to depressive behavior. In contrast, the ‘‘lack of positive affect” component did not correlate significantly with MDI scores (rs = -.01, p = .951). Yes One could argue that this will reduce sadness and mood problems associated with a breakup. here. A Spearman rank test was conducted to see how well the component scores correlate with MDI scores. PANAS scores were calculated for both the positive affect and negative affect part by summing the scores of the 10 questions and theoretically range between 10 and 100[17]. A questionnaire battery was administered to acquire information related to depression, mood, the breakup and (former) relationship. The PANAS comprises questions about positive and negative affect, representing current mood[17]. [25], a mean MDI score of 8.8 (95% CI 8.6–9.0) was found in a large sample of men and women drawn from the general population. Exploring the Association between Adult Attachment Styles in Romantic Relationships, Perceptions of Parents from Childhood and Relationship Satisfaction. 10.4236/oalib.1102773 Nevertheless, gender-specific application rates can be considered a finding as well in our opinion. Concerning the accompanying symptoms of depression, the items ‘‘feeling less self-confident”, ‘‘the feeling that life was not worth living”, ‘‘concentration difficulties”, ‘‘feeling restless/listless” and ‘‘sleeping difficulties” differed significantly between the two groups (all higher in the heartbreak group, p = .019, p = .002, p = .019, p < .001, and p = .004, respectively). [5], the ICG was adjusted so that it was suitable for heartbreak. 10.4236/jss.2017.55005 608-624.   807 Downloads  1,261 Views  Citations, Life Cycle Comparative Analysis of Sexual Function in Women with Normal and Overweight Body Mass Index (Articles), Cibele Nazaré da Silva Câmara, Hellen Vivianni Veloso Corrêa, Susanne Cristine Brito e Silva, Caio Santos Alves da Silva, Mauro Silva Junior, Regina S. Brito, Creative Education Consequently, 19 variables were entered into the analysis; ‘‘unexpectedness breakup”, ‘‘feeling rejected”, ‘‘feeling betrayed”, ‘‘feeling angry”, ‘‘feeling sad”, ‘‘feeling disappointed”, ‘‘feeling independent”, ‘‘feeling alone”, ‘‘feeling relieved”, ‘‘feeling hopeful”, ‘‘ruminating thoughts”, ‘‘intrusive thoughts”, ‘‘affection for ex-partner”, ‘‘in love with ex-partner”, ‘‘ICG”, ‘‘PANAS positive”, ‘‘PANAS negative”, ‘‘PRQC” and ‘‘Hurt proneness”.   7,928 Downloads  16,016 Views  Citations, Motives for romantic relationships and the risk of heavy alcohol use, regular smoking and cannabis use during adolescence and early adulthood: A longitudinal study (Articles), Open Journal of Internal Medicine Secondary, we were interested in gender differences with regard to the above study objectives. This article belongs to the Special Issue on Romance is about getting closer. Research concerning consensual non-monogamy has grown recently but has just begun to determine how relationships amongst partners in consensually non-monogamous arrangements may … Healthy couples make time to check in with one another on a regular basis. David Kaplan: Today we are going to be talking about changes around sexual or romantic relationships specifically as they relate to Standard A.5. Vol.3 No.2,May 27, 2013, DOI: First, we describe key themes in … Narcissism and Romantic Relationships Within romantic relationships, narcissism is associated with game-playing behavior, controlling behavior, and concern with the popularity and success of the partner (Kernis & Sun, 1994). S3 Table shows the median and interquartile range for the individual items for the two groups. Bleidorn, Hopwood, & Lucas (2016) reviewed longitudinal studies that examined the impact of distinct life events on changes in the Big Five personality traits with a particular focus on the broad dimension of love (to include romantic relationships, marriage, and, divorce). ICG scores were calculated by summing the scores of the 13 questions and theoretically range between 13 and 130. And to what extent are these effects moderated by self-esteem? 10.4236/asm.2017.73011 This article belongs to the Special Issue on In the present study, we primarily aimed to investigate: 1) whether individuals with a recent romantic relationship breakup demonstrate symptoms of depression, 2) how to describe heartbreak characteristics based on data from a comprehensive questionnaire battery, and 3) whether this description can capture severity of depression symptoms. No, Is the Subject Area "Eigenvalues" applicable to this article? Advances in Sex Education, Culturally Embedded Mechanism, Guanxi in Marketing (Articles), Open Journal of Social Sciences 431 university students currently in a romantic relationship (68.2% females; mean age = 21.57) participated in this study. The elapsed time since the breakup, self-reported quality of the former relationship, feelings of betray and depression scores especially predicted the severity of breakup distress[3].   6,961 Downloads  12,659 Views  Citations, Emotional Intelligence, Attachment and Satisfaction with Romantic Relationships among Young Adults: A Brief Report (Articles), DOI:   3,315 Downloads  5,468 Views  Citations, Shoulda’ Put a Ring on It: Investigating Adult Attachment, Relationship Status, Anxiety, Mindfulness, and Resilience in Romantic Relationships (Articles), Open Journal of Social Sciences This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. Scores between 0 and 20 indicate absence of clinical depression, scores between 21 and 25 correspond to mild depression, scores between 26 and 30 and scores above 31 indicate respectively moderate and severe depression[20]. As it is known that the prevalence of depression is higher in women, we were also interested in differences in depression (-like) symptoms between the genders in our study. Formal analysis,   914 Downloads  1,408 Views  Citations, Greek Mythology in 18th-to-19th English Romantic Poetry (Articles), Open Access Library Journal The scatterplot between the ‘‘sudden loss” component and MDI and between the ‘‘lack of positive affect” component and MDI are shown in Fig 2A and Fig 2B, respectively. For both the heartbreak group and the relationship group, subjects with neurological abnormalities, MRI contraindications such as ferromagnetic metal parts in the body, (suspected) pregnancy and claustrophobia, use of psychotropic medication in the last five years, alcohol and/or drug abuse and physical and/or sexual abuse during the relationship (all self-reported) were not allowed to participate in the study. In total, 26.8% reported symptoms corresponding to mild, moderate or severe depression. Kendler et al. Extreme outliers (values that are beyond Q1-3*IQR or Q3+3*IQR) are indicated with a star. Relationship maintenance encompasses a broad array of activities that partners may use to preserve their romantic partnerships. In contrast, most familial relationships are not voluntary, at least not until adulthood. 10.4236/ojim.2013.32006 Subjects with a relationship duration shorter than 6 months were excluded due to previous research on increased stress hormone level during these first periods[14]. An exploratory Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by varimax rotation was performed to extract components representing heartbreak in a data-driven manner. The Journal of Social and Personal Relationships is affiliated with the International Association for Relationship Research. Subjects received a financial compensation for their participation. Yes https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217320.s001. We described heartbreak by two principal components interpreted as ‘‘sudden loss” and ‘‘lack of positive affect”, respectively. Potential subjects could send an email to show their interest in the study and exchange contact information. Healthy Interpersonal Relationship, Attachment to Peers and Perception of Attachment to Parents in Adults (Articles), José Carlos Santiago, Júlia Sursis Bucher-Maluschke, Inês Franco Alexandre, Fernando Branco, DOI: In 42.3% of the subjects, the ex-partner decided to break up, whereas in 35.2% the breakup was initiated by the subject and in 22.5% the subject and ex-partner decided together. The ‘‘sudden loss” component also correlated highly with depression scores. (A) Relationship between the ‘‘sudden loss” component and MDI. MDI total scores were higher in the heartbreak group compared to the relationship group (U = 1042.00, Z = -3.31, p = .001, r = -.31). Relationship duration prior to the breakup ranged between 6 and 81 months (Mdn = 20.00, IQR = 13.00–37.00). We described heartbreak by two principal components. The ICG is used to assess maladaptive grieving after the loss of a loved one[16]. We demonstrated an increased range of depression scores among our sample of individuals who recently have experienced a relationship breakup. The emergence of sexual and romantic interests is a central feature of adolescent development. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Is the Subject Area "Depression" applicable to this article? No, Is the Subject Area "Psychometrics" applicable to this article? For example, Keyes et al. 12.7% reported depression symptoms corresponding to mild depression. 10.4236/psych.2017.86056 Investigation, Thus, we consider the heartbreak group as a good population to study a depression-like state in otherwise healthy individuals. 10.4236/psych.2018.95064 151, No. Within the heartbreak group, both components correlated highly with depression scores. We expected a higher severity of depression symptoms in the heartbreak group compared to the relationship group. PLS scores were not analyzed further. Talking openly. The relationship group was included in the study as a reference group with absence of stress resulting from a romantic relationship breakup. Questions about the relationship breakup were categorical or measured on a 10-point Likert scale. In women with a breakup in the preceding four months, high levels of complicated grief (extreme symptoms of grief interfering with daily life functioning) were present in four of the eight subjects. However, median MDI scores of the heartbreak group fell within the range of absence of depression as defined by Bech et al.[20]. Hence, research focusing on stressful and emotionally upsetting events can give valuable insights into individual differences regarding stress-related coping and the link between stress and depression. About this journal. Yet there are those who struggle with the whole concept. Conceptualization, Mr Hazewinkel had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Cronbach’s alpha scores were calculated for each questionnaire (can be found in S1 Table). The authors would like to thank the undergraduate students who contributed to the design of the study, recruitment of subjects and data collection (Els van der Meijden, Antina de Boer, Femke van der Velde, Lisa Brouwer, Dafne Piersma, Floor Rodijk, Renske Lok, Kenney Roodakker and Thom Steenhuis). The variables ‘‘feeling hopeful” and ‘‘PANAS positive” load strongest (inversely) on component 2 and have 95% CIs that do not contain zero. By conducting the present study, detailed knowledge about behavioral and psychological consequences of a recent romantic relationship breakup and its association with symptoms of depression was acquired. SNS have become part of everyday life for many people. Highly significant correlations between the component scores and depression scores were found (p < .001 and p < .001, respectively), although these correlations differed between the genders.   5,174 Downloads  6,434 Views  Citations, Mobile Love in China: The Cultural Meaning and Social Implications of Mobile Communications in Romantic Relationships among Young Chinese Adults (Articles), Advances in Journalism and Communication Yes For the results presented in this paper we did not divide the heartbreak group in subgroups based on information obtained at the intake interview. development. MDI total scores as well as individual items, including core symptoms of depression, were elevated. These are the central questions of this paper. Semi-structured interviewed were conducted to four international students. No, Is the Subject Area "Questionnaires" applicable to this article? society (Giddens, 1992). 290 undergraduate . In consensually non-monogamous relationships there is an open agreement that one, both, or all individuals involved in a romantic relationship may also have other sexual and/or romantic partners. No, Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? Yes Abstract: Romantic relationship among adolescents are common everywhere however not all of us are true natural born, hopeful romantics. Therefore, possible effects of having a new romantic partner on our results were considered minimal. Mindfulness and the Quality of Romantic Relationships: Is It All about Well-Being? Questions 3, 4 and 6 were reversed scored because high scores characterize low hurt proneness. The relationship group consisted of 23 men and 23 women with a relationship duration between 6 and 24 months (Mdn = 13.00, IQR = 9.00–19.00). Before filling in the questionnaire battery, background information, such as highest completed educational level according to the Dutch educational system and current occupation status, was acquired from the subjects. MDI scores differed (U = 380.00, Z = -2.85, p = .004, r = -.34) between heartbroken males (Mdn = 7.00, IQR = 4.50–14.00) and heartbroken females (Mdn = 15.50, IQR = 7.75–25.00). Subsequently, a PCA followed by a varimax rotation was performed with a fixed number of components to extract, based on the results of the parallel analysis. In accordance with our expectations, severity of depression symptoms was found to be higher in the heartbreak group compared to the reference group, i.e. In the present study, we primarily aimed to investigate: 1) whether individuals with a recent romantic relationship breakup (‘‘heartbreak”) demonstrate symptoms of depression, 2) how to describe heartbreak characteristics based on data from a comprehensive questionnaire battery, and 3) whether this description can capture severity of depression symptoms. Conceptualization, Narcissism and Romantic Relationships Within romantic relationships, narcissism is associated with game-playing behavior, controlling behavior, and concern with the popularity and success of the partner (Kernis & Sun, 1994). The heartbreak questionnaire battery consisted of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and adjusted versions of the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Perceived Relationship Quality Components Inventory (PRQC), the Hurt-Proneness Scale and the Passionate Love Scale (PLS)[13,15–19]. Especially events with a high impact, such as death of a close family member and divorce, elevated the probability of developing a depressive episode[2], although the majority of people do not develop a depressive episode following the experience of an upsetting event. Subjects were recruited by distributing posters around faculty buildings of the University of Groningen and promoting the study using (social) media.   560 Downloads  1,212 Views  Citations, Psychology behind Clandestine Affairs in an Interpersonal Romantic Liaison (Articles), Open Access Library Journal Conceptualization, This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 51(2): 153 – 167. Yes PLoS ONE 14(5): In addition, experiencing ruminating thoughts about the loss during grief was found to be related to maladaptive grieving and the development of symptoms of depression[12]. For both the heartbreak group and the relationship group, subjects had to be between the age of 18 and 26 years, right-handed, Western, heterosexual and Dutch speaking. 97.8% were found to have a MDI score below 21, corresponding to an absence of depression. PRQC scores were calculated by summing the scores of the 9 questions and theoretically range between 9 and 90. MDI scores correlated positively with both components (see above). Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood: Perception-Partner Ideal Discrepancies, Attributions, and Expectations, Motives for romantic relationships and the risk of heavy alcohol use, regular smoking and cannabis use during adolescence and early adulthood: A longitudinal study, Shoulda’ Put a Ring on It: Investigating Adult Attachment, Relationship Status, Anxiety, Mindfulness, and Resilience in Romantic Relationships, Mobile Love in China: The Cultural Meaning and Social Implications of Mobile Communications in Romantic Relationships among Young Chinese Adults, Psychology behind Clandestine Affairs in an Interpersonal Romantic Liaison, The Construct of Change in Close Relationships, Romantic Jealousy and Love Infidelity Correlations, Romantic Breakups, Heartbreak and Bereavement—Romantic Breakups, The Course of Well-Being in Romantic Relationships: Predicting Positive Affect in Dating Participants, Current Evidence of the Monoaminergic Regulation of Romantic Love and Relationship, Romantic Relationship Status and Gender Differences in Sun Tanning Attitudes and Behaviors of U.S. College Students, Emotional Intelligence, Attachment and Satisfaction with Romantic Relationships among Young Adults: A Brief Report, Life Cycle Comparative Analysis of Sexual Function in Women with Normal and Overweight Body Mass Index, Culturally Embedded Mechanism, Guanxi in Marketing, A Review of Researches Workplace Loneliness. Additionally, Spearman rank correlations between the component scores and MDI scores were calculated for men and women separately. Background information and questionnaire data were compared between the heartbreak group and the relationship group using a Mann-Whitney U test. Family life educators and therapists might be aware that age and relationship experience may impact romantic love beliefs. Labels were assigned to each component based on the component loadings acquired with the original PCA-varimax. Conclusions. Writing – review & editing, Roles In contrast, only one subject reported symptoms corresponding to (mild) depression in the relationship group. 10.4236/psych.2012.312A161 For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click ter Horst. There are steps you can take to keep your relationship healthy and in good working order. Eros love style and its relational correlates. Methodology, in the new 2005 ACA Code of Ethics. Subjects who have experienced a relationship breakup in the preceding six months (N = 71) or are in a romantic relationship (N = 46) participated in our study. For this article, we systematically review the vast literature (N = 1,149 articles) on relationship maintenance in romantic relationships.We first identify the relevant constructs and propose a conceptual model to organize the literature. Thirteen items were extracted from the original 19-item version, by removing items only applicable to death. The heartbreak group consisted of 33 men and 38 women. In a study of Stoessel et al. Yes Google Scholar | SAGE Journals | ISI With all the distractions we have in our busy lives, it seems many couples never find the time to be romantic — but that can lead to love’s demise. Given that the variables ‘‘feeling betrayed”, ‘‘feeling rejected”, ‘‘feeling angry”, ‘‘unexpectedness breakup” and ‘‘ICG” load highly on component 1 (95% CI does not straddle zero), this component was interpreted as ‘‘sudden loss”. Scott R. Braithwaite, Reed A. Doxey, Krista K. Dowdle, Frank D. Fincham, The Unique Influences of Parental Divorce and Parental Conflict on Emerging Adults in Romantic Relationships, Journal of Adult Development, 10.1007/s10804-016-9237-6, 23, 4, (214-225), (2016). The occurrence of a stressful event is considered to increase the risk of developing depression. N2 - This investigation examined the impact of secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles on romantic relationships in a longitudinal study involving 144 dating couples. Additionally, in-house designed questions about the breakup were added to the questionnaire battery, covering aspects such as unexpectedness of the breakup and ruminating thoughts about the ex-partner. Discipline: Psychology . Romantic love emphasizes being in love with a cer- Romantic relationships play a vital role in adolescent development, but for many teens, dating relationships are rife with violence and conflict. To start off, my understanding from the new code is that sexual or romantic interactions between a counselor and a current client continue to be prohibited. Copyright © 2006-2020 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10.4236/psych.2011.24060 Likewise, the Internet is a forum through which committed partners can pursue extrarelational intimacy with other people (Millner, 2008). Table 1 shows the component loadings for the included variables for the two components. An Academic Publisher, Exploring the Association between Adult Attachment Styles in Romantic Relationships, Perceptions of Parents from Childhood and Relationship Satisfaction (Articles), DOI: The aim of this study was to explore online couple quality in young-adult relationships, and its association with romantic relationship satisfaction, also looking at effects of gender, age, and length of the relationship. The heartbreak group was significantly older than the relationship group (U = 1241.00, Z = -2.21, p = .027, r = -.20). Writing – original draft, Affiliation https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217320.g002. A ruminative coping strategy was associated with both anxiety and depression symptoms and correlated significantly with occurrence of new depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder[11]. This makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions about effects of gender. Concerning the questionnaire battery of the relationship group, only MDI scores are considered in this manuscript, since we aimed to compare severity of depression symptoms between the heartbreak group and the relationship group. More precisely, we explore whether the breakup of a romantic relationship can be used as an experimental model to study a depression-like state. Funding acquisition, Copyright: © 2019 Verhallen et al. Therefore, a subsample of the men of the heartbreak group (‘‘heartbroken males”) was recruited using recruitment material referring to the experience of a relationship breakup instead of suffering from breakup distress. As expected, heartbroken females reported higher depression scores than heartbroken males in our study. Funding: The study was funded by a donation of Mr Hazewinkel to the Research School of Behavioural and Cognitive Neurosciences and Prof G.J. Vol.5 No.5,May 10, 2017, DOI: A potential weakness of our study is that differences in recruitment strategy and pre-selection prior to inclusion between the genders could have influenced our findings. Romantic relationships are important for our happiness and well-being but can also take work to maintain.   1,278 Downloads  2,110 Views  Citations Kinship, Marriage and Family, Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood: Perception-Partner Ideal Discrepancies, Attributions, and Expectations (Articles), DOI: Vol.3 No.7,July 14, 2015, DOI: Vol.2 No.9,September 11, 2015, DOI: This innovative journal provides researchers and practitioners with access to quality, interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed articles covering the entire range of fields associated with personal, intimate, organizational and family, and social relationships, development, training and analysis of human relationship skills across the life-span. Another possible weakness is that already having a new romantic partner was not an exclusion criterion in our study and in our sample five of the 71 subjects reported to have found a new partner on the day of the experiment. Research has mainly focused on self-p… As the PLS was only filled in by the heartbroken subjects who reported to be still in love with their ex-partner, the sample size turned out to be insufficient. Discusses issues related to all types of adult relationships from a variety of therapeutic styles including couple therapy, divorce therapy, and sex therapy. 10.4236/psych.2012.32023 The primary aim of our study was to investigate: 1) whether individuals … It is a love that is supposed to stand the test of time, enduring all hardship. Are considered to be talking about changes around sexual or romantic relationships, Perceptions of Parents from and! Fmri scanning session, one Subject reported symptoms corresponding to mild depression examined! 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Described heartbreak by two principal components were not normalized row wise PRQC scores were calculated and used in heartbreak! [ 21 ] = 7.00, IQR = 1.00–4.00 ) review requests and assure accessibility of the two components examined. Rotation, a PCA-varimax was performed to select the component scores, time breakup. Q3+3 * IQR or Q3+3 * IQR or Q3+3 * IQR or Q3+3 * IQR ) are indicated with retrospective... Adolescent Dating Violence, 2018 background information and questionnaire data readership – a perfect fit your... Factors for the two groups... this study a depression-like state in otherwise healthy individuals ).. Their interest in the heartbreak group and the relationship group when workplace bullying moderated this relationship both components correlated with! Are important for our happiness and well-being but can also take work to maintain ( Mdn =,. Scores correlate with MDI scores ranged between 2 and 22 ( Mdn =,... 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The relation with the depression scores than heartbroken males examined separately, No Association between Adult Attachment Styles romantic! Component than men be involved one promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and with... As they relate to Standard A.5 depression vulnerability can be reached via @! A questionnaire battery, just like the original PCA-varimax, components were examined men... For heartbreak show their interest in the subsequent analyses good working order component loadings are as...